Learning Environments Consortium International

LEC Articles on Personalized Instruction

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Personalized Instruction — Phi Delta Kappa Fastback:

Lecforum authors James W. Keefe and John M. Jenkins discuss the fundamentals of personalized instruction, including its definition, the six basic elements, strategies and tactics for personalization, a process for implementing design-based, strategic change in schools and the need for a new accountability in education.

Personalized Instruction:

This KAPPAN journal article by LEC Forum authors defines personalization as the effort on the part of a school to organize the learning environment to take into account individual student characteristics and needs, and to make use of flexible instructional practices. The authors outline and discuss the basic elements of personalized instruction.


This original LEC Forum article summarizes the history and current status of teacher-adviser plans, the typical dimensions of effective advisement programs, and suggestions about organizing for advisement.


This original LEC Forum article defines constructivism and discusses constructivist views on learning. Learning under constructivism is an individual matter. Learners construct reality in terms of prior experiences, their conceptual knowledge, their procedural schemata, their values, their attitudes, and their preferred ways of knowing.

Strategies for Personalizing Instruction: A Typology for Improving Teaching and Learning:

This NASSP BULLETIN article by LEC Forum authors presents a typology of instructional strategies classified in terms of their levels of interaction and thoughtfulness. The authors treat nine of these tactics in greater detail as representative of differing levels of responsiveness to the demands of personalization

Two Schools: Two Approaches to Personalized Learning:

This KAPPAN journal article by LEC Forum authors gives accounts of two schools, one in the United States and one in Canada, that exemplify the best of current initiatives to personalize schooling and instruction. The authors believe that the kind of personalization represented here must become the cornerstone of school renewal, not state testing or rigid standardization.

Reggio Emilia Preschools:

The Reggio Emilia Preschools approach is an educational philosophy and pedagogy focused on preschool education. The approach is a student-centered and constructivist self-guided curriculum that uses self-directed, experiential learning in relationship-driven environments.

Francis W. Parker Charter Essential School

The depth of inquiry in the Francis W. Parker School program requires that students demonstrate their understanding of ideas, skills, and concepts. In The Disciplined Mind, Howard Gardner describes the need to combat naive misconceptions through discourse with teachers, mentors, and other students. Having students gradually excise misconceptions and replace them with more robust and accurate representations seems a central function of formal education. The Parker School provides us with a high-quality exemplar for achieving this end.

Personalized Learning Environments:

This original LEC Forum article lists the major beliefs of LEC International about personalized school learning environments. It compares teacher roles/responsibilities and program structures under traditional and personalized models of schooling, and enlarges upon student and teacher roles in personalized environments.

Social Promotion and Student Retention:

This original article by a LEC Forum author argues that neither grade retention nor social promotion of students offers a solution to a longstanding problem facing our schools: how to provide effective support to students with failing study habits or different learning styles? Five prevention strategies are discussed.

LEC Forum

LEC Forum